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Distance Education Utilizing Live of Classroom Broadcast Pilot Project / Final Report 2004
-Through transfiguration for in service teachers by utilizing TV program in classroom-
(The viewpoint of teacher education)

 Evaluation group-1
 Reported by Tokuji Hayashi
Abstracts

The purpose of this project and a summary of prospective results are as follows.

  • Over all goal
     To improve quality of basic education nationwide through electric media regardless of geographical setting
  • Outcomes
    1. Support the implementation of curriculum reform
    2. Introduce effective teaching and learning strategies
    3. Produce component teachers
    4. Support remote schools

Among these results of this project, the author focuses on (3) "Produce component teachers" and describes the results obtained by field-observations. TV and non-TV classes (primary & secondary) in model schools and also remote schools around Port Moresby were observed and video-recorded. These observations were performed twice, in 2002 and 2004. Based on the records and interview-results to teachers, the author discusses the effects of this project on teachers training and also discusses about future issue.

Preceding study -dominant factors for improving teacher's ability-

The author quotes a preceding study to determine the factors which are important for teacher training. Oki, Yamaguchi University, Japan, found important factors for teaching which contributed to improvement of student's understanding and motivation. His finding is based on data of 9,624 student's evaluation in 149 courses, and the results were utilized for FD (Faculty Development) training program held for teaching staffs of Yamaguchi University and its neighborhood universities. Figure 1 and figure 2 shows the mental models of students obtained by covariance structure analysis for the class evaluation carried out in the latter period of 1999 and 2002, respectively. An item surrounded with a square in these figures corresponds to a question in the evaluation of lesson by university students. The questions used in the questionnaire were summarized in the following table.

Speech Could you hear the teacher’s speaking well?
Explanation Did the teacher explain theory, thinking way, technical terms appropriately?
Teaching material Was writing on the blackboard effective?
Were texts and/or printed materials used effectively?
Media Were OHP, video, and/or PC contents used effectively?
Question Were you given enough chanced to put a question to the teacher?
Attitude Were gestures and eye-contacts of the teacher appropriate?
Homework How many hours did you study for this class at home?
Comprehension Did you understand the class?
Satisfaction Were you satisfied by the class?
Attendance How often have you attended the course?

An item surrounded in a circle is a factor extracted as a potential variable. The important point in these figures is that "teaching skills" reflects "comprehension", "interest ", and "useful" through "students will (only 1999)" and "schema". The effect of "teaching skills" on "comprehension"(1999) is calculated as follows.

    (0.59+0.42×0.40)×0.74=0.56

The term: 0.59x0.74 corresponds to the pass that "teaching skills" affects on "comprehension" through "schema formation",the term:0.42×0.40×0.74 corresponds to the pass that "teaching skills" affects on "comprehension" through "students will" and "schema formation". The other pass coefficients can be calculated in the same way. The effect of "teaching skills" on "comprehension" was found to be 0.56 for "comprehension (1999)" and 0.71 for "comprehension (2002)", 0.61 for "useful" and "satisfaction" (1999) and 0.77 for "useful" and "satisfaction" (2002). Thus, "comprehension" and "satisfaction" strongly depend on teaching skills of the teacher.

This model shows that that "comprehension" and "satisfaction" of a class strongly depend on teaching skills of a teacher.


Fig.1 Mental model of students through the lectures evaluation in Yamaguchi University, 1999


Fig.2 Mental model of students through the lectures evaluation in Yamaguchi University, 2002

The author focuses on the six factors -- speech, explanation, teaching materials, media, questions from students, and attitude -- that affect teachers’ teaching skills. The author reports achievements and issues based on the field-observations of the TV and non-TV classes and interviews with model teachers and pilot-school teachers.

Survey content
(1) Observed schools
 The author visited the following model schools and pilot schools.
1) Model schools -- Two primary schools

Model school is the school that provides lessons to be recorded on video tapes for broadcasting as educational TV programs. The lessons are recorded and edited by the staff of the Media Center in Port Moresby and will be broadcasted via Satellite along specified on-air schedule. The recorded lessons are grade-7 and grade-11, and the subject was science and social science. In the model school, model teachers had pre-training to provide the TV lessons. They utilize lab instruments, MS-PowerPoint materials, real objects, and charts in the TV lessons. We especially focused our attention on the changes and improvements of the model teachers during this survey of last project year.

2) Pilot schools -- Four primary schools near Port Moresby

The pilot schools receive the educational TV programs and the students have the TV lessons. The schools we visited were located in mountain or beachside areas, and 20 to 30-km far from the model schools in Port Moresby. In the pilot schools, their ordinary lessons are implemented according to the curriculum and also on-air schedule of the TV lessons. The pilot-school teachers use the TV lessons as their educational tools, and one TV monitor is installed in one classroom. (Two monitors are provided in some classrooms.) In pilot schools, teachers give the lessons with using TV programs and also give the lessons with their own teaching materials (Non-TV lessons). We surveyed impact and effectiveness which pilot-school teachers received from the educational TV programs in this last project year.

(2) Examination method

We observed lessons and interviewed teachers at the model schools and also pilot schools in the first project year (2002) and the final year (2004) in order to investigate the changes and improvements of teaching skills.

(3) Examination content

調査した授業技術の観点は、先に述べた沖が提案する以下の内容について授業観察を基に調査した。

 1) Speech: clarity, speaking speed, loudness level
 2) Explanation: lesson plan (logicality, flow)
 3) Teaching material: laboratory instruments, whiteboard, printed materials, computer
 4) Media: TV content, MS-PowerPoint slides
 5) Question: questions from teacher, knowledge of results (intelligent/emotional)
 6) Attitude: non-verbal communication (eyes contact, gesture, teaching activity)
Survey results
(1) Teaching skills of model teachers

The following is one case of 2004 teaching flows in model classes, behaviorism, which was improved from that of 2002.

 - Target: secondary school, grade-11(17 years old)
 - Subject: science
 - Theme: conservation of energy
Introduction 1 Show the subject of the lesson by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation
2 Instruct to take a note on own notebook Teaching materials, Explanation
Teaching activities 3 Demonstration of oscillator Teaching materials, Explanation
4 Questions from teacher and Answers on whiteboard Question
5 Show the key points by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation
6 Instruct to take a note of formula by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation
7 Show the key points and practical exercise by using MS-PowerPoint Teaching materials, Explanation
8 Teacher walks around a class and check how students are doing (action) Attitude
9 Experiment by a student standing on platform
(with using lab instruments)
Teaching materials, Attitude
10 An answer by the student on whiteboard Teaching materials, Explanation
11 Show the key points by MS-PowerPoint slide Teaching materials, Explanation
12 Instruct to take a note of formula by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation
Learning activities 13 Show applied exercise by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation
14 Demonstrate experimentation with lab instruments Teaching materials, Explanation
15 Instruct to discuss among students Explanation
16 Teacher walks around a class and check how students are doing (action) Attitude
17 Show a hint Explanation
18 Designate a student Question
19 An answer by the student on whiteboard Question
Review and practical exercise 20 Explanation of the solutions by using MS-PowerPoint slides) Teaching materials, Explanation
21 Closing greeting Attitude
22 Explanation of next learning theme by using MS-PowerPoint slides Teaching materials, Explanation

1) Speech (verbal)

The model teacher’s speech has been extremely improved about clarity and loudness level for instructions and questions from teacher. The model teacher was conducting the classes with having much attention for teachers and students watching at pilot schools.

On the other hand, the author found that the speaking speed varied at first and in the end of the lesson – especially speaking speed became fast in the end. Besides appropriate interval between explanations and “cue” that trigger students’ interests in learning are more required. Notifications of key points should also be more emphasized because toneless speech was observable.

2) Explanation

The model teacher utilizes the behavioristic method in this class, which is shown by the teaching flow that the author described above. The behavioristic method is that the teacher leads the class to teach knowledge and skills along with the goal. The teaching process is methodized by the theme of the lesson, introduction, expansion (experiment, discussion), and summary, and the teaching process have been clarified and improved in comparison with 2002. The teacher have established to use both the voice and audio-visual material (MS-PowerPoint slides) for explanations, and also the teacher often gave directions and actions with much attention to students and teachers of pilot schools. Moreover, with thinking of the students’ notes, the teacher used many ideas on display of the MS-PowerPoint materials and writing of additional matter on the blackboard, which has been also dramatically improved in comparison with that of the project first year.

On the other hand, the directions to students such as “listening”, “writing” was not clear, and the teacher went forward next process without enough time for students writing. And sometimes there were difficult points for students to understand because the TV programs are produced with focus on teaching activities and some of instructional methods might not fully considered. The author got worry about the vague descriptions used in the current syllabus, the purpose of unit and also in learning activities. In the future, reconsideration of the syllabus about each subject is needed, development of the teacher guidebook, teaching materials for teachers, and material collection is also required. In addition, it is necessary to work on the enhancement of the teachers’ quality in order to assist the pilot school teachers using the TV classes in their local classes.

3) Teaching material

Textbooks are not sufficient in pilot schools, nor can’t they have some of experimentations in science classes. The model teachers use many laboratory instruments, review of lesson, and show the objectives by using MS-PowerPoint slides, and also use whiteboard as sub teaching tool since the model teachers pay much attention to the situation of the students and teachers in pilot schools. We had dramatically improvements of screen design (eg. font size, color, and volume of the text) compared with the first project year. Also the size and color of the text on whiteboard were fully considered.

However, it seems that there are some problems on students learning activity. The students take notes at the entire TV class, and at the same moment, students have to keep watching, listening, and also writing. And model teachers are required to have teaching skills such as comprehensive explanations, instructions, and questions from teacher. The model teacher mainly showed the key points with text, but additional design and other presentation techniques (eg. photos and illustrations) that work with student’s visual sensation and impress on the students were not sufficient. Therefore the author thinks that educational material which teacher use for teaching and initiating and also educational material that students use for their thinking and imagining are more required. Future challenge is that the model teacher needs to improve the teaching skills that give a cue or rest to students learning activity.

Besides, the on-air term of MS-PowerPoint sides was not sufficient, thus it was noticeable that some students didn’t have enough time to take notes. The author suggests distributing printed materials to support the learning activity in pilot schools. In addition, teacher’s textbook and collection of teaching materials and documents should be prepared and distributed to pilot schools beforehand, and teachers in pilot schools use these materials in the TV classes for effective learning.

4) Media

TV monitors in model schools are used for displaying the MS-PowerPoint materials. The current monitor is slightly small size in case that the number of student in one class is 30 to 40, but there is no problem when the size of MS-PowerPoint texts is appropriate. In addition, model teacher have improved and shortened the time for the operation of the MS-PowerPoint sides. The MS-PowerPoint materials are effectively used for teacher presentation such as explanation, question, exercise, and summary, and also the materials are used by students who is appointed by the teacher and show-and-tell his/her research or answer to the class.

The contents of the MS-PowerPoint can be shown on the whiteboard. The author suggests that the model teacher learn to produce new educational materials such as Macromedia flash and CG (Computer Graphics). These new materials will allow simulation of XXX with moving images and animations, and will effectively work with student’s visual sensation. For example, it is important that model teacher demonstrate and show XXX in case that the teacher have a experimentation in science class, however, using moving pictures will work on students imagination and acquirement of knowledge. Therefore, The way of using TV is to show not only the MS-PowerPoint based on word but also simulation, animation and one of display method as TV in TV.

5) Question

Teaching process was dramatically improved as compared with the first year – three-ways communication by teachers action, students reaction, and teachers KR to students (intelligent KR and emotional KR) was proactively performed. Especially, the model teacher made exact communication with students with the intelligent KR that informs students right and/or wrong and also with the emotional KR such as encouragement that works on students’ emotion. In addition, when make a question to students, the teacher made some efforts and asked students in various ways, not only making a question directly like “What is this?” but also asking for students in indirect way such as “why”, “how”. This is extremely effective way for pilot school students since they could have extensive lesson possibilities by not only picking up yes/no answers but also taking up many opinions from individual students. It is required to secure enough time for students for thinking and giving a reply, however, it seems to be difficult to have that time in the case of the lessons constrained by time particularly in pilot schools. The teacher has to secure more time for students’ questions. In addition, when the model teacher give an indirect question to students, the teacher must give a clear direction to students in advance of the group discussion in order to refrain from students misunderstanding.

6) Attitude

The teachers’ eyes contact to students and video camera(s) have been dramatically improved in comparison with the first project year. In addition, the author found many times that teacher walked around the class and checked during learning activities. The model teachers walking and checking was displayed on the monitors in pilot schools, which turned out a reference for pilot school teachers. The problem is that the model teachers looks nervous by him/her face, so there was a few smiles on the face by the pressures. Beside gestures of the model teacher were not enough, so the TV class lacked cues for pilot school students keeping to watch the TV class at long times. As a next step, the model teacher needs to get in-service training about non-verbal communications where the teachers’ facial expression and attitude affect students.


(2) Teachers teaching skills in pilot school
[Pilot school normal class without using educational TV programs in pilot school]

The following is one case of 2004 teaching process without using TV class, which was improved from that of 2002.

 - Target students: primary school, grade-7 (13 years old), 21 students in one class
 - Subject: science
 - Unit: solution making gas
1 Teacher explains the today’s lesson theme.
2 Teacher provides laboratory instruments (candle, plate, aqueous solution, and beaker) for each small group.
3 Teacher explains how to perform the experiment and give an answer to question from students.
4 Teacher gave some advice about laboratory instruments for each group.
5 Teacher puts a match to all the candles.
6 Teacher instructs students to put aqueous solution into a plate.
7 Teacher instructs students to put a candle with fire on the surface of solution.
8 Teacher instructs students to cover the candle with the beaker.
9 Teacher instructs students to observe the flame of the candle.
10 Teacher walks around a class and check how students are doing.
11 Teacher provides students with printed materials for clarifying the key points and giving students summary questions.
12 Teacher instructs students to discuss among students.
13 Teacher walks around a class and check how students are doing.
14 Teacher instructs some groups to perform the experiment again in order to confirm queries.
15 Teachers instruct each group to write answers on the blackboard for the questions listed on printed material.
16 Each group makes a presentation of their answers in front of the whiteboard.
17 Teacher gives students additional explanation and key points on the whiteboard.
18 Teacher instructs students to applaud the presentators.
19 Closing greeting.

The author analyzed and examined the teachers teaching skills based on the six factors that I mentioned above.

1) Speech

The teacher in pilot school speaks clearly, and speech speed and loudness have been improved compared with the project first year.

2) Explanation

Pilot teacher explanation during the class was not one-way communication, but ideal, exact explanation accommodating students learning. By an interview to the teacher, the author found that he consulted the process of the model teachers’ classes. The teacher inserted the explanation in each small break point. And in the interval of the explanations, the teacher gave directions to individuals or small groups in order to check the student comprehensions.

The current problem is that there is lack of moral and logicality on the lesson theme in pilot-school classes. As the author mentioned, the syllabus is not high quality, so that the there is no reference material for teachers, teacher guidebook. This cause an ambiguity of the lesson theme, and as a result, the author found that the teacher taught students wrong knowledge since the teacher did not fully understand the generated phenomenon and its reason and accordingly the teacher got some problems when composing his own related knowledge.

The author place a high value on the student interest toward the phenomenon (liquid flowing in the beaker) caused by the demonstrations such as “putting a match to the candle”, and “covering the candle with the beaker”, as an hand-on activity. However, it was a matter of regret that the teacher did not add the efficient explanations for the factor and reason of the phenomenon: the teacher closed the class with a summary, “the reason is gas was made from the burn up”. It is necessary to provide in-service training on subjects with pilot school teachers.

3) Teaching material

In the pilot school, the author was sympathized with the teacher who implemented the classes with many ideas and with using the insufficient leaching materials and budget. The teacher use textbook and printed material of his own making in the most of the classes, but miniatures, experiment instruments and materials are not sufficient. In these circumstances of teaching materials, the experiences through the educational TV programs is effectively worked on the student motivations and constructions of their images, coincidentally the experiences contribute towards the enhancements of the teacher teaching skills.

In learning with hands-on activity like this class, we can expect the high level of students’ interest, comprehension, and satisfaction through the acoustic sense, visual sense, virtual experience, and real experience. However, there were some problems in basic writing skills on the blackboard in terms of the color of the text, usage of the color chalks, position of the blackboard, appropriate writing on individual subjects. Teachers writing on the blackboard became the basis for student notes, and it is also key learning materials when students review the classes. Therefore, it is fundamental for teachers to get trainings of utilization of audio/visual equipment and enhancement of constructive writing skill. The author had a look at notes of a student for other subject, but it seemed for the student to be difficult to review the learning points because the notes are complicated. The teacher needs to direct the students to take notes of learning points, learning theme, results and opinions, summary, and exercises.

4) Media

This class did not use the educational TV program at the conventional local class.

5) Question

In the class, mainly the teacher provided the students of questions directly or indirectly. The emotional KR where the teacher accepts the answers of students was very improved. The teacher gave broad range of questions from conventional direct questions (yes or no questions) to indirect questions such as “why” and “how”. On the other hand, there is some doubt to student stability of the right knowledge in the intelligent KR where the teacher inform the students of right or wrong, because the teacher sometimes gave the vague answers. It is essential for the teacher to enhance his expert knowledge since the teachers own schema and expert knowledge affect the questions for students effectively.

6) Attitude

The teacher attitude was excellent. There was no difference between a Japanese excellent teacher and the pilot school teacher in attitude such as eye-contact, instructions to individuals and/or small groups, and gestures toward student learning activity.


[Pilot school class with using educational TV programs]

The author analyzed and examined the teachers teaching skills based on the six factors that I mentioned above.

 - Target students: primary school, grade 7 (13 years old), 21 students
 - Subject: science
 - Unit: solution

1) Speech

In the pilot school classes, the pilot school teacher generally add some explanations with following a progress of a TV class. Sometimes the teacher had a talk with the TV volume muted, however, the talk and explanation often did not match to the progress of the TV class. Readiness, pause, and concern of students are different between model school classes and pilot school classes, thereby, it is natural that some problems occur in the pilot school classes. At the same time, teachers’ ability has an effect whether he/she can lead the class to meet the pace of the model class. Teacher having sufficient expert knowledge can keep pace with the TV classes without any pressure.

The author is also impressed that the teacher did not have attentions to the student activities during the TV lessons since the teacher was taking in the TV program like his/her students.

2) Explanation

The explanations by the pilot model teacher seem to be depending on model teachers’ explanations. The author interviewed a pilot model teacher and received have an opinion-- “The TV classes are led by model teachers, so it demotivate some pilot teachers”. This pinion is different depending on the teachers’ ability. Teachers with expert knowledge have negative feelings about the TV lessons because they have some criticism toward the teaching process and method of the model teachers. This type of opinion is heard often from secondary school teachers. On the other hand, teachers with a few expert knowledge feel that the TV classes are very helpful and useful. The problem here is that the content of the broadcasted TV class is effective if it is fully considered, however, the TV class with ungifted instructional method and knowledge in advance many give wrong directions and knowledge to pilot school students and also teachers. TV classes are helpful for teachers since the instructional method can be gained by visual perception. Knowledge, however, may be affected by the ability and comprehension of each pilot teacher, and then the pilot teacher may misunderstand. From a macroscopic, system engineering viewpoint, the influence on teacher would be improved on that process without thinking much. From educational viewpoint, there is some doubt about the method.

3) Teaching material

The pilot school teacher spends most of the class in watching the TV program, adding some explanations, confirming the questions, and writing on the blackboard. On the other hand, pilot school students spend the time in watching the TV program and taking notes. During the class, discussion time is very short - only three minutes - and just three students made an answer to the teacher. The author was strongly impressed that the teacher was transcribe text content of the Power Point sides on the black board, and student was taking notes of the text content on their notebook at the same time. In the observed class, there was few learning with student thinking and discussions since the text content on the Power Point Sides are large amount and the display time is limited and not enough for students. It is necessary to provide the pilot-school teacher of teacher guidebook, teaching materials, and material collection related to the TV classes in advance of broadcasting the TV classes.

4) Media (TV utilization)

In the pilot schools, TV is the media consist of audio and video, and it is one of main teaching materials. A lot of educational information such as explanations and directions from model teachers, questions to students, demonstration of the experiment, and appearance of the model students are transmitted and displayed on TV at a time. It is important to make maximal use of the characteristic of the selected media when we use audio-visual equipment including TV. The educational information should be considered from movies, still pictures, texts, and audio aspects, and it must be provided in order to make interest with student visual sense. In addition, the classes in pilot schools need to be focused on learning, not subject to the TV. In other words, teaching-learning oriented attitude is important rather than media oriented attitude. In current educational TV classes, unimportant audio and graphical content are included in the teaching and learning activities, however, model teachers have to avoid misleading content including design, audio and graphical images.

Furthermore, TV is media generally used to watch, and hear the information. Students write down means to require new action (taking notes during watching the TV). For example, we might have following cases on pilot school students through the TV classes. In one case, the pilot school student does not have interest in the TV class topic, meanwhile, he/she has interest in model students and watch them rather than displayed learning points. Another case is students spend most of the TV class in taking notes without expressing his/her opinions. It is necessary to review the TV classes whether the classes focus on the learning topic and incorporate some cues to students. In the current circumstances of Papua New Guinea, we can expect that the TV classes make interest with students and also give encouragement. But it passed two years from the beginning of this project year, therefore, it is necessary to incorporate fully worked-out content and challenge to shift from the interesting classes to logical, critical classes.

5) Question

In the pilot schools, it is difficult for pilot teachers to give the questions to students during TV lessons since the TV lessons are led by model teachers. Besides there is no enough time for students to make a reply to question because the TV lessons are arranged to meet the specific on-air time. Furthermore, the author found bias effects in the pilot schools: answer of pilot school student was often led by the answer of model students. There are many remaining questions whether the pilot school students comprehended the lesson theme.

It is necessary to accommodate new topics for offering knowledge and skills on their own lives in addition to transmit the TV lesson recorded at model schools. And it’s also necessary to provide new content that allows the pilot teachers to lead the lessons and instruct to have a discussion among pilot school students.

6) Attitud

Pilot school teacher spent time to watch the TV programs with students because he/she does not have teacher guidebook, so teaching activities and walking around a class and checking were exiguous. This links to luck of communications between the teacher and students. As the author mentioned above, students also spend time to take notes for their homework, discussions and communication among students were also exiguous. As a next step, it is required to distribute teacher guidebook to pilot teachers in advance and also inform them of lesson process, related information, questions for students, and discussion time.

Improvements on teaching skills

The followings are examples of in-service teacher trainings which are provided in Japan.

(1) Training menu aimed for improvements of lessons

The following three training courses are classified in basic in-service teacher trainings, which are designed for improvements of the teaching skills and are not subject to kinds of trainings nor courses.

1) In-service training for acquiring expert knowledge on subjects

This training is designed to improve the teachers expertise on subject and also to develop the curriculum.

This is essential to provide the trainings with focused on individual subject. The author expects that the current classes with using TV educational programs can provide pilot school teachers with instructional methods of model teachers and the pilot school teachers put the acquired instructional methods in their practical lessons. However, it is hard to say that expert knowledge can be adequately acquired from the transmitted model lessons. The learning materials for teachers are necessary to compensate for the expert knowledge. There are two types of training substance and its method: behavioristic and social-constructivistic methods. The behavioristic method is that the instructor trains the teachers methodically and based on teachers knowledge levels. In the meantime, the social-constructivistic method is that each attendance (teacher) selects a topic, which connects with his/his expert knowledge, and he/she takes trainings with assembled topics. Recently the social-constructivistic method is getting attention in comparison with cram trainings by behavioristic method since the social-constructivistic method focuses on attendance needs, wishes, and also having discussions. However, both the behaviostic method that allows acquiring additional knowledge methodically and the social-constructivistic method that is useful in usual classes must be combined for comprehensive training in order to enhance the expert knowledge.

2) In-service training for acquiring teaching skills (such as teaching method and skills, educational medial, and development of teaching materials)

This training is designed to learn the instructional methods.

One of the achievements of this project is the dramatic improvement on teaching skills of the pilot school teachers. The author found may achievements: teachers question skill and writing skill for whiteboard, preparation of printed materials, KR activities (compliment and encouragement), group discussion, increasing occasion of student presentation were obvious achievements as compared with that of the first project year.

As a next step, it is vital for teachers to learn instructional methods considering the enhancement of student comprehension and students satisfaction. Training for evaluating the students’ learning-effect objectively is also important.

3) In-service training for Literacy (including moral and national policy)

This training is designed for enhancing the teacher quality.

It is essential to develop the teachers’ literacy in order to enhance the teachers’ quality. It is important that Papua New Guinian teachers treat the recent domestic problems such as HIV, environments, home education, occupation and industry even if it requires considerable time. In addition, the teachers need to watch the moves of the world, and then they have trainings aimed to build up the literacy as educators. The suitable training method is the social-constructivistic method that I mentioned above.


(2) Training Pattern

The training pattern utilized in Japan is collective training. The collective training is planned by Japanese government or local authorities and some professors of university cooperate as instructors. Besides the trainings are classified into qualified trainings encouraging to an advanced license or other trainings planned by local authorities. Education center of local governments are used for these trainings, and in some regions, schools (universities) are designated for the training spaces and provide the trainings for neighbor teachers.

One example is that the education committee of Gifu prefecture implements training through distance learning with video conference system in cooperation with Gifu University. This training is intended for equalization of the training opportunity (for local teachers), improvement of training efficiency, and alleviation of training cost. Another example is that the five universities (Kagawa University, Kochi University, TOTTORI University, Shimane University and Yamaguchi University) are linked each other with the video conference system and provide an extension lecture of graduate university for advanced license targeting the local in-service instructors. These trainings utilize synchronous and two-way communication way, however, most of the training time is spent for directions or explanations by instructors, and the training seems to be one-way teaching. As for the one-way training by receiving educational TV program on real time like this JICA-SONY project, its effectiveness can be expected by providing some assistance for bi-directionality such as printed materials and development of facilitators in local area. However, not media-precedence but rather educational approach is important at one-way training. Based on the characteristic at the teaching process, we must well consider the curriculum design, training content, and evaluation target and method. When we focus on the teacher education, curriculum development regarding to teaching skills and teachers training on subjects, and training content is vital factors.


(3) Collective training and remote training by using TV programs

The author weighs requirements and contents of the collective training and the remote training especially on teaching skills. Those trainings are used for in-service teacher trainings.

  The author weighs requirements and contents of the collective training and the remote training especially on teaching skills. Those trainings are used for in-service teacher trainings.
 - Training name: 教育実践学特論
 - Training hours: 30 hours (two units)

Collective training
(including deliver training)
Remote training with TV
(Organizer)
(Organizer) Required (30 hours) Not required
Transport expenses for instructors Required Not required
Facility Required (accommodation only) Each school need TV, Antennas, generator, and case)
Broadcasting facility Not required Required
Fee for preparing teaching materials Not required (printed teaching materials) Required (video, card chart, printed teaching materials)
Connection fees Not required Required
(Attendance-course student-)
Transport expense Required Not required
Training opportunity
Training opportunity
Training opportunity × ◎(Capable of video dubbing)
Willingness, interest ◎(Primary effect)
Receiving capacity for the attendances
Questions to model instructor ×(by Mail)
Questions from model instructor △(forecast)
Economy of training hours Yes No
Evaluation ×
Report of homework ×(by Mail)
Learning diagnosis ×

Unresolved Issues for the Future and Suggestions
(1) The syllabus for each grade, teachers guide book, and instructional materials

We investigated the curriculum of the present science course for each grade, since the classes we had investigated was all for science and social science courses. As a result we discovered that description in the syllabus as to recommended activities, recommended processes, and skills and suggested activities was too rough to theorize, which prevented the students from acquiring knowledge effectively. As far as we reviewed the curriculum, we cannot help but think that everything is up to the teacher in each class, which causes discrepancy in quantity of recommended knowledge among the students and schools as well.

It would be the first step, therefore, to revise the syllabus of educational TV/Video programs. At the same time it would be very important to make a teachers guide book and instructional materials used in class, and to distribute them not only to the schools where they’d already been provided with educational TV/Video programs but also every school in the nation.


(2) Review of Educational TV/Video Programs

The present classes by model teachers are produced for model students at model schools. And the points of view in the programs contain both the knowledge for students and instructional skills and suggested activities for teachers, which confuse the teachers at pilot schools, because there is much difference in learning processes between the students at model schools and pilot schools.

Therefore we would like to suggest that we should make TV/Video programs focused on teachers at pilot schools to indicate how and what should be taught. In the programs the teachers at model schools conduct classes so that the other teachers at pilot schools could simulate them with a teachers guide book distributed to pilot schools. And it would be very significant to devise educational programs based on social-constructivism in which students could learn independently and autonomically, since the present programs were packed with knowledge and skills for students to learn based on behaviorism. By adopting as introduction students’ interest and topics in their everyday life relating to what they learn in the program, more independent and autonomic learning, which would also be expected to improve knowledge acquiring, would be possible. Combined use of the present TV/Video programs and social-constructivistic programs would help not only students but also teachers to improve knowledge and skills to learn and teach which leads to teachers’ faculty development.


(3) Revision of Media Instructional Materials

As the teaching processes at model schools showed, MS-PowerPoint slides were frequently used for teachers’ explanation. Though the MS-PowerPoint instructional material is very useful in efficiency and readability, it often tends to lower the students’ learning retention rates because it makes them busy in writing down what is shown on the MS-PowerPoint slides in a short time and takes away the time to think on the matter. Therefore a new teaching method should be required to consider the thinking processes of learners by increasing the scenes in which teachers write on the blackboard instead of using MS-PowerPoint slides. Teachers’ blackboard-writing skills should be improved and more card/chart-typed instructional materials should be introduced to make the programs useful at the schools where MS-PowerPoint is out of use. As for dynamic contents that cannot be shown on the blackboard, it doesn’t go without saying that simulation software is required for computers.

The present TV/Video programs show no timetable or allocation table of lessons necessary for each learning activity, which would tend to confuse teachers at pilot schools for proceeding classes of their own. Timetable or allocation table of lessons should be added to the teachers guide book as soon as possible. And more information as to “cues” for teachers to provide the other TV/Video programs relating to what the students are learning should be included in the teachers guide book in order to motivate students to learn willingly.


(4) Development of TV/Video Programs for Teacher Education

As for teacher education, it would be necessary to develop TV/Video programs which consist of 3 points of view mentioned above (1.major subject, 2.teaching skills, 3.literacy). The programs should contain regionalism for cues of learning, such as regional culture, peoples’ life and customs in addition to fundamental knowledge and skills to teach. It would also be important that 2 different types of TV/Video programs should be produced respectively based on behavioristic and social-constructivistic methods of teaching in accordance with each relating academic field. In addition it is also important to consider PNG teachers’ own cultures and characteristics in the programs.

TV/Video programs for teacher education are required to have digest-like high quality so that anyone could catch up and achieve the goals of the seminars. Directions such as “to make you do something” or “to teach you”, as are frequently used in the ordinary programs for students, would be unsuitable because many teachers might have less knowledge and skills but more prides in teaching than expected. It is also another key point that experts should be involved in the programs together or watch them beforehand and evaluate the emotional effects and degree of satisfaction of the programs.

                                                           

Teaching activity at the model school (2002)

Presentation of student at the model school (2004)

Walking around a class and checking by pilot teacher (2004)

Experiment by Teachers’ idea (2004)

Student, writing a note

Pilot school teacher,looking at a monitor of model class

Learning activity requested looking, listening and writing

TV class at pilot school (2002)

Improved TV class at pilot school (2004)

Learning activity, busy with writing a note (2004)

Teachers training connected with 5 universities

Teachers training by using video conference system

Writing on blackboard by pilot teacher 1 (2004)

Writing on blackboard by pilot teacher 2 (Letter only)

Presentation of student at the model school (2002)